States Can’t Make Up New Laws to Punish Old Conduct Just Because They Call Them “Civil”

Article I, Section 10 of the Constitution provides that “[n]o State shall … pass any … Ex Post Facto law.” The Ex Post Facto Clause was incorporated into the Constitution to prohibit states from enacting retrospective legislation, which the Framers

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vigilante reprisals, physical attacks, and even murders

Subsequent to the establishment of publicly disclosed sex offender registries in or about 2006, there have been dozens of reports of vigilante reprisals, physical attacks, and even murders of individuals on public sex offender registries that occurred solely because the victim

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Does a Watched Pot Boil? A Time-Series Analysis of New York State’s Sex Offender Registration and Notification Law

A study conducted of sexual crimes in New York by Jeffrey Sandler, Kelly Socia, and Naomi Freeman in 2008 found more than 95 percent of registerable sexual offenses and more than 94 percent of sexual offenses against children

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